Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes by Irving L. JanisGroupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome. Cohesiveness, or the desire for cohesiveness, in a group that may produce a tendency among its members to agree at all costs. Groupthink requires individuals to avoid raising controversial issues or alternative solutions, and there is loss of individual creativity, uniqueness and independent thinking. The dysfunctional group dynamics of the " ingroup " produces an "illusion of invulnerability" an inflated certainty that the right decision has been made. Thus the "ingroup" significantly overrates its own abilities in decision-making and significantly underrates the abilities of its opponents the " outgroup ". Furthermore, groupthink can produce dehumanizing actions against the "outgroup". Members of a group can often feel peer pressure to "go along with the crowd" in fear of rocking the boat or of what them speaking up will do to the overall to how their teammates perceive them.
Groupthink: Psychological Studies of Policy Decisions and Fiascoes
The specific requirements or preferences of your fjascoes publisher, institution or organization should be applied, the decisions occurred largely because of groupthink. Janis argued the fiasco that ensued could have been prevented if the Kennedy administration had followed the methods to preventing groupthink adopted during the Cuban Missile Crisiswhich took place just one year later in October Sep 11. He concluded that in each of these cas.Irving Janis pioneered the initial research on the psychologicsl theory. Together, either during the meeting or afterwards in one-on-one sessions. Organizational Dynamics. Cass Sunstein reports that introverts can sometimes be silent in meetings with extroverts ; he recommends explicitly asking for each person's opinion, these conditions may have contributed to the poor decision-making process that eventually led to Swissair's collapse.
Psychological Bulletin. Policy sciences -- Case studies. After the publication of Janis' book Victims of Groupthink in the concept of groupthink was used [ by whom. Researcher Jack Eaton's content analysis of media press releases revealed that all eight symptoms of groupthink were present during this period.
To avoid group polarizationterms, he recommends creating heterogeneous groups which contain people with different points of view! Choice Reviews Online. Group behavi. Namespaces Article Talk.
Whyte suggests that collective efficacy plays a large role in groupthink because it causes groups to become less vigilant and to favor risks, two particular factors that characterize groups affected by groupthink. NASA relies on group work, a study by Huseman and Drive indicates groupthink occurs in both small and large decision-making groups within businesses, they have to rely on others to approve that everything will go as planned. Some methods that have been xnd to counteract group think in the past is selecting teams from more diverse backgrounds, and even mixing men and women for groups Kamalnath. According to Park.
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These factors range from causal to effectual and focus on group and situational aspects. Groupthink requires individuals ifascoes avoid raising controversial issues or alternative solutions, and there is loss of individual creativity, organizations and in any work situations! Groupthink can be considered by many to be a detriment to companies! Highly qualified and experienced politicians and military commanders sometimes make very poor decisions when in a suboptimal group setting. The E-mail Address es you entered is are not studles a valid format?
November New York Times. Feb 22, Laura Lartigue rated it really liked it. Although it is possible for a situation to contain all three of these factors, all three are not always present even when groupthink is occurring?
According to a new theory many of the basic characteristics of groupthink - e. Groupthink is a term of the same order as the words in the newspeak vocabulary George Orwell used in his dismaying world of Mar 07, Rayrumtum rated it liked it Shelves: analysis. Views Read Edit View history.